One of the writer’s most effective tools is dialogue. A story with little or no conversation between characters can sometimes make the eyelids flicker. Too much may leave the reader breathless.
An author may use dialogue to provide the reader with new information about characters or the plot, delivered in a more natural way. They may also utilise it to speed up the pace of the story.
There are various ways it can be used and to great effect, such as with internal dialogue. So in this guide, we’re going to look at how to write good dialogue, the kind that readers will love. We’ll achieve this by answering questions big and small and looking at plenty of dialogue writing examples.
You can jump through this guide on writing conversations by clicking below:
Choose A Chapter
- What Is Dialogue?
- The Rules Of Dialogue Format And Punctuation
- Should I Use ‘Said’ And Asked?
- How To Write Dialogue Between Two Characters
- How To Write Good Dialogue
- How To Write Internal Dialogue
- An Exercise On How To Write Dialogue
- Examples Of Good Dialogue From Fiction
- Technical Writing Tip – How Does Dialogue Impact The Pacing Of A Story?
- How Do You Edit Dialogue?
- More Guides On Creative Writing
Dialogue is defined as a conversation between two or more people, particularly in the context of a book, film or play.
Specific to writing, dialogue is the conversation between characters.
As we’ll see below, there seems to be one pervading guideline when it comes to writing dialogue and that is clarity reigns supreme.
What Is Internal Dialogue?
Internal dialogue is that which happens within a character’s mind. This can sometimes be reflected in fiction with the use of italics. For example:
I hope they don’t come down here, Mycah thought.
Internal dialogue is a great way of delving deeper into a character’s mind and perspective and is a powerful weapon when it comes to characterization. We explore it in more detail below.
Writers have different stylistic preferences when it comes to dialogue. Below, we’ll take a look at some of the best practices and common literary conventions.
Writing Dialogue With Single Quotations
This does come down to a matter of style.
The best format I’ve found, and by best I mean the approach readers find clearest, is to use speech marks (“) as opposed to a single apostrophe (‘).
If, for instance, a character is speaking and quotes someone else, a single quotation mark can be used within the speech marks, therefore avoiding any confusion, for example:
“I can’t believe she called me ‘an ungrateful cow.’ She’s got some nerve.”
Format Dialogue On A Single Line
Another helpful approach to help maintain clarity is to begin a piece of dialogue on a new line whenever a new character speaks. For instance:
“Who was at the door?” Nick asked.
“A couple of Mormons,” Sarah said.
Adding Dialogue Tags
A dialogue tag is simply a piece of prose that follows a piece of speech that identifies who spoke. You can see it in the example above featuring Nick and Sarah.
You can use dialogue tags in lots of useful ways. For example body language.
If a character reacts to something another character says or does, to maintain clarity, pop the reaction on a new line, followed by dialogue. So for example:
“We’re all sold out,” Dan said.
Jim sighed. “Have you not got any in the back?”
Something I’ve noticed some of my favourite writers doing—James Barclay and George R.R. Martin, in particular—is, when possible, avoid using an attribution altogether. Less is more, as they say. If just a couple of people are talking, it may already be clear from the voices and language of the characters who exactly is speaking.
Again, to aid clarity, if there are a number of people involved in a conversation, it helps to use an attribution whenever a different character speaks. Nobody wants to waste time re-reading passages to check who’s speaking. I don’t enjoy it and I’m sure others don’t either.
Repetitive use of attribution may grate on a reader. It can suggest a lack of trust in them to follow the story. It helps when editing to look for moments where it’s unclear who’s speaking and if necessary add an attribution.
A brief point on the styles of attribution. If you read a lot, you may notice some writers prefer the order “John said,” and some prefer “said John”. Sanderson is of the view that the character’s name should come first because that’s the most important bit of information to the reader. But the likes of Tolkien adopted the latter version. It’s all personal preference. Why not mix and match?
When it comes to the questions I often see asked on how to write dialogue, this is perhaps the most common.
An attribution, also known as an identifier or tag, is the part of the sentence that follows a piece of dialogue. For example: “John said.” In his creative writing lectures, Brandon Sanderson shares a few useful tips.
- Try to place the attribution as early as possible to help make it clear in the reader’s mind who is speaking. This can be done mid-sentence, such as: “I don’t fancy that,” Milo said. “What else do you have?” Breaking away like this works well if a character is going to be speaking for a few lines or paragraphs. You can also use an attribution before the dialogue, though there’s something about this that I find jarring. Used sparingly it works well, but too often just seems annoying and archaic. It’s all personal preference though.
- Try using beats, but not too many. What’s a beat? A beat is a reaction to something said or done. So for example facial expressions like frowning, smiling, narrowing of the eyes, biting of the lip, and hand gestures such as pointing, clenching fists, and fidgeting. And then you’ve got physical movements, like pacing up and down, smashing a glass, punching a wall.
- Don’t worry about using ‘said’ and ‘asked’. To the reader, these words are almost invisible. What they care about is who exactly is speaking.
- When a character first speaks refer to them by name, but after that, it’s fine to refer to them as he or she, provided they’re still the one speaking. It’s even desirable to use the pronoun; repeating a name over and over can irritate a reader.
What To Use Instead Of Said In Dialogue
Remember, there’s no problem with using the word ‘said’ after a piece of dialogue. But if you find when reading your piece aloud that the repeated use jars, especially in a dialogue-rich scene, you may want to mix things up.
Using words other than ‘said’ can help to characterize too—everybody reacts differently to things and those reactions reveal a lot about a person.
So, here’s a list of twenty words that you can use instead of ‘said’ in dialogue:
- Pointed out
So, let’s take a look at how to write dialogue between two characters.
A useful distinction to make is between everyday dialogue and the dialogue we find in fiction.
The chatter we hear in real life is full of rambling, repetitive sentences, grumbles, grunts, ‘erms’ and ‘ahs’, with answers to questions filled with echoes (repeating a part of the question posed, e.g. “How are you?” asked A. “How am I?” B answered).
When we think of the dialogue we read in books, it contains little of the things we find in these everyday exchanges. According to Sol Stein, there’s a reason for this—it’s boring to read.
If it holds no relevance to the story, we don’t care if a character’s cat prefers to eat at your neighbour’s house instead of your own, or if they think their nail job isn’t worth the money they paid, or if they think the window cleaner isn’t cleaning their windows. There are some snippets we overhear on the street that are interesting—an unusual name, a section of a story we want to know more about. Rare diamonds in a mine miles deep. I’ve fallen into the trap of trying to achieve realistic dialogue and it makes for drawn-out scenes and boring exchanges.
According to Stein, dialogue ought not to be a recording of actual speech, but rather a semblance of it.
What is this semblance of dialogue why should we try and achieve it?
So, how do we write good dialogue?
When we scrutinise a person as they’re talking (all the boring stuff aside) we discover a lot about their character: who they are, what they believe in, and sometimes, if they reveal them, their motives. We glean all this from word choice, sentence structure, choice of topic, their behaviour as they say something.
It’s these little details we as writers must dig for, so when it comes to writing our own dialogue, we can use them to help characterise our own characters and, if possible, develop the plot. The key to mastering dialogue, according to Stein, is to factor in both characterisation and plot.
How do we do it? Let’s look at some dialogue writing examples:
Milford: How are you?
Belle: How am I? I’m fine. How are you?
Milford: Well thanks. And the family?
I had to stop myself from stabbing my eyes out with my pen. This example is mundane, riddled with echoes, and gives us no imagery about the characters involved. How about this version?
Milford: How are you?
Belle: Oh, I’m sorry, didn’t see you there.
Milford: Is this a bad time?
Belle: No, no. Absolutely not.
See the difference? Milford asks Belle a question, which Belle doesn’t answer. This is an example of oblique dialogue. It’s indirect, evasive, and creates conflict.
It’s a great tool when it comes to looking at how to write dialogue in different ways. Our character is not getting answers. Oblique language helps to reveal a bit about the characters and the plot, namely that Belle could be a bit shifty and up to something unsavoury.
Writing Realistic Dialogue
When it comes to knowing how to write natural dialogue, the question to ask yourself is whether or not this style is going to fit your story.
Natural dialogue suits some stories wonderfully. However, it can also work against your story, maybe confusing things for your readers or making it too difficult to read.
When it comes to writing natural dialogue, it’s important to bear in mind the principles discussed here. Give your conversations purpose, make them oblique or intriguing, and don’t give information up cheaply.
You can achieve this in a natural or more casual or informal style.
Say It Aloud
When you’ve written a piece of dialogue, one of the best and simplest techniques to check how it works is to say it out loud.
In doing so you’ll get a sense of how natural it is or whether it jars, or even if it’s cringy or cliche—we’ve all been there.
If you don’t feel comfortable speaking it aloud, you can use a Text to Voice function, like on a website like Natural Readers which allows you to paste in text and then have it read it back to you (it’s free).
Add Slang From Your World
An effective way to write good dialogue that not only characterizes and drives the plot but adds to your world, is to use slang or world-specific references. This can be particularly useful in the fantasy and sci-fi genres.
For example, in my novel Pariah’s Lament, I refer to the world in place of phrases that refer to our own. So instead of “What in the world was that?” I’d say something like “What in Tervia was that?”
Small Talk And Hellos And Goodbyes
As a general rule, there’s no need to include small talk, hellos and goodbyes. The reader isn’t really too bothered about these niceties. They just want to get to the action, the conflict.
You can brush over things like small talk and hellos with short descriptions in your prose. For instance:
Stef and John stepped into the room. A sea of smiling faces welcomed them and before they knew it, they were shaking hands and embracing.
“I wasn’t expecting such a warm welcome,” Stef said.
“It’s like they have no idea what we’ve done,” John replied.
“Maybe they don’t.”
“Or maybe they do, and it’s all a ruse.”
Stef looked at him a moment, thoughtful. “You’re getting paranoid.”
See here how the hellos were glided by and we’re straight into more interesting dialogue?
Give Your Characters Their Own Voice
A character’s voice is an important factor in dialogue. Nobody speaks in the same way. Some people have lisps, some people say their ‘r’s’ like ‘w’s’, some people don’t enunciate properly, say words differently, speak in accents, and have a nasal twang. There are so many variables.
Introducing these features to some or all of your characters can help to make them more memorable and distinct.
How To Write Dialogue For A Drunk Character
When we’re writing our stories it’s likely that some of our characters may become intoxicated with alcohol or drugs. This creates the question in a writer’s mind, how do you write dialogue for a drunk character?
We can fall into the trap of spelling out the words that they try to say, factoring in the slurs, the missed words and the mispronunciations. The problem this can create is that it can go against our overarching principle of clarity reigns supreme.
Dialogue that’s too difficult to read can cause frustration in the reader. They may get fed up and stop reading altogether—the last thing we want.
The best technique is to provide a description of how the person is talking. Describe how they slur their words, how certain letters sound in their drunken state and so on. Including body language in this will help a great deal too. You can then write dialogue in a more natural and understandable way.
The same applies to the likes of writing stuttering in dialogue. It can be very frustrating for a person to listen to a person with a stutter. To include it in your writing can cause problems too. So again one of the best solutions is to describe the stutter first and then write dialogue naturally.
Hopefully, these tips will help you with how to write dialogue for our intoxicated characters.
An Author May Use Dialogue To Provide The Reader With Information, But Don’t Info Dump
An author may use dialogue to provide the reader with useful information. However, if done incorrectly it can have a negative effect.
In his book The First Five Pages, Noah Lukeman says that one of his biggest reasons for rejecting a manuscript is the use of informative dialogue. In other words, using dialogue as a means for conveying information, or info-dumping. He says it suggests the writer is lazy, too unimaginative to convey the information in a subtler way. If you’d like to learn more about avoiding info dumps, check out my guide on natural worldbuilding.
Sometimes dialogue will give us no information at all. Sometimes snippets. Often if you overhear a conversation between two people you’ll find you understand little of what they discuss. It’s the little details they reveal that are most interesting. Take the example of someone mentioning they went to the hospital. The person they’re with may know why they went, but you don’t. Give the reader pieces of the giant puzzle and leave them wanting more.
Lukeman suggests a few solutions to mend instances of informative dialogue. One is to highlight pieces of dialogue that merely convey information and do not reveal or suggest the character’s personality or wants. Break them apart and find a way to let them trickle into the story.
Understanding how to write internal dialogue can prove a key weapon in your writing arsenal.
This style of dialogue can be employed effectively in scenes or stories focused on lone characters. It can break up the monotony of long paragraphs of exposition, which provides welcome relief to readers.
There are a couple of common ways that you can employ internal dialogue in writing:
- The first option is to italicise the comments made by your character internally. For example: “A door downstairs slammed shut. It’s not windy tonight. How the hell could that have happened?” The main idea here is that the italicised words make it clear to the reader that this is internal dialogue.
- Another option is to write internal dialogue as you would normal dialogue, with speech marks. The difference is what follows that passage of conversation. Usually, it’s something like, “I really do need to get that fixed,” Halle thought to herself. Here, you simply identify that the dialogue was spoken in the mind and not aloud.
Both approaches are effective and commonly used. However, my personal preference is using italics. To me, it’s just clearer to readers, and that’s the main aim. So that is how to write internal dialogue.
As a little exercise, try and think of some oblique responses to the following line. I’ll give you an example to start. Remember to factor in Stein’s key ingredients—characterisation and plot:
Exercise: “You’re the most beautiful woman I’ve ever seen.”
Example: “Did you say the same thing to that blonde girl behind the bar?”
In this example of how to write dialogue, we get a response that avoids answering the statement. She could quite easily turn around and say “Thank you,” but that’s boring. Instead, we’re wondering about this man and what he’s about, and a bit more about the woman too, namely that she’s observant.
Let’s take a look at some examples of good dialogue from some of the finest pieces of fiction to grave our bookshelves:
Dialogue Example #1 “The Silence of the Lambs” by Thomas Harris
“Good morning, Dr. Lecter. How are you feeling?”
“Better than your last visit, Clarice. Shall I have a chair brought in for you?”
“No thank you, I’d rather stand.”
“Please, sit. That’s better. You know, you remind me of someone. A young man I met long ago. He was a student like yourself, with a quick mind and a charming smile. I wonder what became of him.”
“I don’t know, Dr. Lecter. I’m here to ask you about Buffalo Bill.”
Dialogue Example #2 “The Catcher in the Rye” by J.D. Salinger
“You’re lucky. You’re really lucky. You know that, don’t you?” I said.
“Don’t worry about me,” Sally said. “I’ll be all right. I’m serious.”
“I know you will,” I said. “That’s why I’d like to talk to you for just a minute. This is no kidding. You’re going to have to have yourself a grand time this summer. Especially this summer. Have yourself a real need. Because you’re going to go to a lot of parties, and some of them are going to be quite grim, and you’re going to need that need.”
“I know I will,” Sally said. “Don’t worry about me.”
“I know you will,” I said. “But do it anyway. Do it for me. Okay?”
Dialogue Example #3 “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee
“Atticus, are we going to win it?”
“Simply because we were licked a hundred years before we started is no reason for us not to try to win,” Atticus said.
One of the most important things to know when it comes to looking at dialogue is the impact it has on pacing.
Dialogue has a knack for increasing the pace of the story. Readers can find themselves tearing through pages laden with dialogue. As if with all tools of the craft, it pays to know how best to use it. Literary agent Noah Lukeman said a writer must learn how to use restraint when it comes to dialogue, “to sustain suspense and let a scene unfold slowly.”
Again, it’s all a matter of preference.
It’s one thing to know how to write dialogue, it’s another to know how to edit it.
For sound editing advice a good person to turn to is a master. In his book on the craft of writing, Sol Stein provides a very helpful checklist when going over passages of conversation:
- What is the purpose of this exchange? Does it begin or heighten an existing conflict, for example?
- Does it stimulate curiosity in the reader?
- Does it create tension?
- What is the outcome of the exchange? Builds to a climax, or a turn of events in the story, or a change in relationship with the speakers?
One additional step Stein recommends is reading dialogue aloud in a monotone expression. Listen to the meaning of the words in your exchanges.
“What counts is not what is said but the effect of what it means… The reader takes from fiction the meaning of words. And above all, they take the emotion that meaning generates.”
So these are a few things that I’ve found helpful when it comes to writing dialogue. As we’ve seen, an author may use dialogue to provide the reader with interesting information, delivered in a compelling and intriguing way.
Perhaps the most important advice I’ve taken away from them all is to always maintain clarity while using obliqueness to give dialogue that snappy, enticing edge. It’s easier said than done, mind.
Before I leave you, I wanted to point you in the direction of some other guides I think you may find useful.
- Great Examples Of The 5 Senses In Writing
- Men Writing Women
- How To Avoid Duplicate Content Issues – if you need help with plagiarism or making your content unique, head here
- How To Plot A Story
- More Dialogue Writing Examples from Florida Gulf Coast University
For more writing tips and guides, head here. Or you can find lots of links on all types of creative writing topics on my home page. Thanks for reading this guide on how to write dialogue that readers will love.
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